Rollups are a type of solution that was designed to help solve the scalability issue that has plagued the Ethereum ecosystem.

As Ethereum noted, when the network is busy, transaction speeds suffer, making the user experience poor for certain types of dApps. As the network becomes busier and busier, gas prices rise as transaction shippers aim to outbid each other. This can make the use of Ethereum expensive.

In order to free the possible load on the network, rollups are solutions that carry out transactions execution outside of the Ethereum backbone (layer 1). However, post-transaction accruals The data on Layer 1, which means they always inherit security properties from the backbone.

Properties of accumulations:

  • Transactions are executed outside the main chain (layer 1)
  • Transaction data is recorded on layer 1

Benefits of stacking:

  • Reduced prices for users
  • Open participation
  • Fast transaction debit

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SEE ALSO: Understanding the Polygon network and its quest to become an Internet of blockchains

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Optimistic accumulations

Optimistic rollups run parallel to the Ethereum backbone on Layer 2. They can offer scalability improvements because they don’t do any calculations by default. Instead, after a Layer 2 transaction, they offer the new state to the mainnet or “authenticate” the transaction.

Since the compute is the slow and expensive part of using Ethereum, optimistic rollups would be able to offer up to 10 to 100 times more improvements in scalability depending on the transaction.

Optimistic rollups treat all transactions as legitimate by default, but use evidence of fraud to verify it.

If a validator notices a fraudulent transaction, the rollup will perform an anti-fraud operation and run the transaction calculation using the available status data. This means that you may have longer wait times (several days) for the confirmation of the transaction than a ZK rollup, as the transaction could be disputed.

Unconscious Stacks (ZK)

ZK rollups exploit complex mathematical evidence that allows the Ethereum network to quickly verify and accept the legitimacy of a given batch of transactions.

They aggregate (or “roll-up”) hundreds of off-chain transfers and generate cryptographic evidence known as SNARK (a succinct non-interactive knowledge argument). This is known as proof of validity and is displayed on Layer 1.

With a ZK-rollup, there is no delay when transferring funds from layer 2 to layer 1, because the proof of validity accepted by the ZK-rollup contract has already verified the funds.

In summary, rollups free the mainnet by calculating off-chain transactions, on Layer 1. While optimistic rollups use evidence of fraud to confirm the credibility of transactions to be written to the mainnet, ZK rollups use evidence. validity to quickly check transaction batches.

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RECOMMENDED READING: 3 structural changes coming to Ethereum in 2022

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