Ethereum co-creator Vitalik Buterin explained in his personal blog the different types of ZK-EVM (zero-knowledge verification technology for the Ethereum virtual machine used to run smart contracts) and their functionalities. The developer says that the main difference between the various ZK projects is the balance between practicality and speed.
Beyond their specifications, all ZKs share an objectivesaid Butrine. It “uses ZK-SNARK technology to cryptographically verify transaction execution on Ethereum,” either on the mainchain or at other layers via zero-knowledge (ZK) rollups. It is a type of scalability solution that aggregates transactions and then brings them all together in the core layer.
Next, we will list the different types of ZK projects that have been taken apart by a Russian-Canadian developer. In addition, the main pros and cons of each will be covered.
The first type of ZK-EVM described by Vitalik Buterin is “completely equivalent” to Ethereum. Simply put, it doesn’t “change any part of the system.”,
Its main advantage is compatibility, and these types of projects are key to “making Ethereum more scalable.” According to the Russian-Canadian expert, Type 1 ZKs are ideal for rollups because they allow them to use a large amount of infrastructure.
For the loss of these ZK projects, Time and resource demands are most important for verifying transactionsThis is because, they state, they intend to replicate the Ethereum network exactly, and therefore have no way to “mitigate these inefficiencies”.
The second type of ZK is “completely equivalent to the Ethereum EVM”. It is, Although it is not fully compatible with Ethereum, it is compatible with smart contracts created on this network.,
They differ from the main network layer in block structure, among other technical data. Basically, they make small changes to Ethereum so apps can more easily confirm transactions,
Buterin’s weak point in these ZKs is that They do not eliminate slow trade confirmation in EVMsas well as “its inefficiency and hostility”.
“Intermediate” is a class of ZK (or 2.5, as Vitalik Buterin calls it). which is equal to EVM except the gas cost). They take advantage of improvements in confirmation times, but reduce compatibility and “may break some applications,” he explains.
The third type of ZK described by Ether executives is “partially equivalent to EVMs.” These ZK tests make “some sacrifices” to save time and development prospects,
The disadvantage of these ZK projects, of which Polygon is a representative, is that their App compatibility is poorThis is because many use resources (such as precompiles) that ZK Type 3 removes.
Ultimately, Buterin claims that no ZK-EVM development team intends to create a type 3 project, rather it is. A transition phase until they reach Type 2.5. fail to complete their movement towardsHowever, in the future, many Type 1 and Type 2 ZKs may “voluntarily” become Type 3 in order to optimize their operations in terms of time and cost, he said.
Type ZK 4
This last category includes: ZKs equivalent to Ethereum in its high-level languageThese ZKs “take smart contract source code written in a high-level language, such as Solidity or Viper, and deliver it in a language explicitly designed to be compatible with ZK-SNARKs.”
The positive result of this process is that Very fast test times are achieved, Such efficiency gains are achieved in EVMs by omitting some steps of ZK checks at different execution stages and starting “directly with high-level code”. This, says Buterin, is a big step towards cost reduction and decentralization.
Its disadvantages, meanwhile, are the incompatibility of some applications due to differences in their smart contracts, the greater difficulty of using certain bytecodes in EVMs, and fewer options in terms of “debugging” or correction of faults. In short, compatibility is greatly reduced,
ZK. the future of
To conclude his article, Buterin assured that No ZK is better or worse than other typesThey are different, he explains, and it all has to do with the balance I talked about earlier.
Similarly, it is possible for a ZK project to start with a lower number (more consistent but less efficient) and eventually grow to a higher number (more efficient but less consistent). “I personally want everyone to become Type 1 one day, through a combination of ZK-EVM and Ethereum improvements,” the developer concluded, further clarifying that “it will take time to realize this future “. “